Malaria is an infectious disease and one of the most important public health diseases caused by Plasmodium species and transmitted by the bites of female Anopheles mosquitoes during blood meals.
The International Kidney Day for this year featured some young people who took part in the ”DrinkWaterChallenge’’ to spread awareness on the importance of drinking enough water to maintain the health of our kidneys. There is a common saying that water is the kidney’s best friend. This is a result of the roles water play in maintaining the healthy state of the kidneys.
Prostate-Specific Antigen(PSA) is a protein that is produced by both normal and cancerous cells of the prostate gland in males. It is located on Chromosome 19 in humans. This protein liquefies semen and allows sperm cells to swim freely. It is also found in very little quantity in females and helps in dissolving cervical mucus, allowing sperm cells to enter the uterus.
When COVID-19 struck the world, various measures were incorporated into our normal daily routines to combat its effects. Meanwhile, there is a growing pandemic we are not paying much attention to, which is the spread of superbugs. Superbugs are microorganisms that cause illnesses by the action of antimicrobial agents.
A mammogram has been an effective means of diagnosing breast cancer. It has helped in the early detection of breast cancer which makes treatment more effective before cancer becomes deadly.
Cervical cancer is a malignant tumour of the cervix, which is the lowest part of the uterus (womb).
Cervical cancer is the 4th most common cancer in women. In 2018, 570,000 women were diagnosed
globally with cervical cancer and 311,000 died of it (Ferlay et al., 2018). In Nigeria, cervical cancer is the
2nd most common cancer among women, after breast cancer.
Breast cancer is a condition that is depicted by the unusual growth of cells in the breast. (CDC, 2020). It appears in both males and females but is far more common in females.
The male reproductive system consists of a group of internal and external organs. The internal organs are Vas deferens, ejaculatory ducts, prostate gland, urethra and seminal vesicles. The external organs which are located on the exterior part of the body are the penis, testes, scrotum and epididymis.
Testosterone is a male reproductive hormone that is produced in the adrenal gland and Leydig cells of the testes. The synthesis of testosterone is regulated by the endocrine hormones. The testosterone functions in the development of body and facial hairs, voice change, body and muscle strength and made, sexual drive, fat distribution and enlargement of genitals.
Follicle-stimulating hormone is produced by the pituitary gland which is found at the base of the brain. The follicle-stimulating hormone controls spermatogenesis (the process of sperm production and maturation).
Luteinizing hormone is produced by the pituitary gland which is located at the base of the brain. The production of luteinizing hormone is stimulated by hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone. Luteinizing hormone is transported in the bloodstream to the testes where it stimulates Leydig cells to stimulate the synthesis and secretion of testosterone and androgen.
This is a hormone produced in the pituitary gland. It is also produced in the skin, adipose tissues, breasts, brains, uterus and immune cells. It is named prolactin due to the role it plays in lactation (breast growth and milk production). It also functions in promoting the reproductive system, regulating the immune system and influencing behavior.
Follicle-Stimulating Hormone is produced by the pituitary gland during the first half of the menstrual cycle. It stimulates the development of mature eggs in the ovaries, controls the menstrual cycle and increases oestradiol production in females.
Oestrogen is a major female hormone that is produced mainly in the ovaries. Small amounts are also produced in the breasts, adrenal glands and fat cells. During pregnancy, the placenta also produces oestrogen.
The Luteinizing hormone is an important female reproductive hormone produced by the gonadotropin cells in the pituitary gland of the brain.
The female reproductive system is a special system that functions in the production of female egg cells (called ova) that are necessary for reproduction. It also aids the transport of ova to the site of fertilization and produces female sex hormones that maintain the reproductive cycle.
Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia is a malignant disorder of the bone marrow that affects white blood
cells (mainly the lymphocytes).
Leukaemia is a cancer of the blood that affects the blood-forming tissues (including bone marrow) and
blood cells (especially the white blood cells), thereby inhibiting the body’s ability to fight infection.
Renal failure is the reduction in the kidney’s ability to perform its function of filtering waste products from the the blood. This malfunction could either have an acute effect or a chronic effect on renal vasculature, the tubules or the glomerulus. The acute effect is called Acute Kidney Injury, while the chronic effect is called Chronic Kidney Disease.
Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) is a sudden reduction in glomerular filtration rate which occurs when the kidneys unexpectedly stop working normally. This results in elevations in serum creatinine (SCr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and electrolyte levels (Okusa and Rosner, 2019). The kidneys are responsible for the removal of waste products and the balance of water, salt and other minerals in the blood. When these roles are not performed efficiently by the kidneys, there is a buildup of toxic substances which leads to problems.