HDNB, otherwise called Erythroblastosis fetalis, is a blood condition that occurs in newborn babies. It is referred to as an autoimmune condition. HDNB can either be due to Blood Group Incompatibility or Rhesus Incompatibility. HDNB due to Blood Group Incompatibility is mild and does not lead to death, unlike HDNB due to Rhesus Incompatibility.
Rhesus Incompatibility occurs when a mother with no Rhesus ‘D’ antigen Is carrying a fetus whose blood contains Rhesus ‘D’ antigen which was inherited from the father. After birth, Infants with HDNB have pale looking skin due to anaemia, swelling of the entire body (hydrops fetalis) and yellow colouration of umbilical cord, skin, and whites of the eyes. Sometimes, the liver and spleen are larger than normal size.
If untreated, it can also lead to miscarriage during pregnancy or cause jaundice, brain damage, deafness or death of the infant. The first pregnancy which causes sensitization of maternal immune is not affected. Only successive pregnancies are at risk.
HDNB can be prevented through:
Blood Tests: Blood group screening for couples helps in diagnosing women who are liable to get sensitized and precautionary measures are taken before the first conception.
Rh Immunoglobulin injection
Laboratory Diagnosis of HDNB
Diagnosis of HDNB after birth can be done by screening both the maternal blood and infant blood.
Blood tests on Infants :
Direct Anti-human Globulin Test (DAT) or Direct Coombs’ Test (DCT)
Serum Bilirubin measurement
Blood tests that should be carried out on the mother :
Indirect Anti-human globulin Test (IAT) or Indirect Coombs ‘ Test (ICT)
(Visit MEDBIOTECH for the medical tests listed above. We offer reliable and quality medical laboratory and diagnostic services.)
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