Lyme disease, also known as Lyme Borreliosis is a common vector-borne disease which is commonly caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi and rarely, Borrelia mayonii. The town of Lyme, Connecticut, where the illness was initially discovered in 1975, bears the disease’s name. More than 300,000 cases are recorded each year.
It is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected black-legged ticks.
There are three stages of Lyme disease. Stage 1 is called early localized Lyme disease. Stage 2 is called early disseminated Lyme disease. Stage 3 is called late disseminated Lyme
Although the signs and symptoms of Lyme disease might differ from person to person, they frequently include fever, headache, chills, dizziness, shortness of breath, swollen knee, neck stiffness, lethargy, muscle and joint aches, swollen lymph nodes and an erythema migrans-like skin rash. If the infection is not treated, it can spread to the brain system, heart, and joints, resulting in more severe symptoms like facial paralysis, arthritis, memory loss, nervous damage and palpitations.
The Laboratory diagnosis of Lyme disease is by the culture of Borrelia from skin snips or blood and occasionally cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). It also involves serological tests and the detection of genetic material by PCR in the skin, blood, synovial fluid and CSF.
It is treated with medications. Lyme disease can be prevented by avoiding tick bites, using tick repellents, wearing protective dresses and staying on clear paths.
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