Leukaemia is a cancer of the blood that affects the blood-forming tissues (including bone marrow) and
blood cells (especially the white blood cells), thereby inhibiting the body’s ability to fight infection.
Globally, more than 300, 000 cases of leukaemia are recorded, making 2.8% of all new cancer cases. This
condition has a 5-year Survival Rate of 65.8%.
Researchers have not yet identified the definite causes of leukaemia but it is known to be a result of
mutations in stem cells that produce the blood cells. The risk factors of leukaemia include a family
history of leukaemia, genetic disorder, previous chemotherapy, existing blood disorders, smoking and
exposure to radiation.
Some of the symptoms are regular fever, unintended weight loss, severe infections, easy bruising or
bleeding, enlarged liver or spleen, seizures, night sweats and shortness of breath.
The four major types of leukaemia are Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia (CML), Acute Myeloid Leukaemia
(AML), Chronic Lymphoblastic Leukaemia (CLL) and Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia (ALL).
To diagnose Leukaemia, the laboratory tests involved are Blood tests (Full blood count), Biopsies (bone
marrow and lump node biopsies), Lumbar puncture and Imaging tests. Also, to assess the progression of
leukaemia, the laboratory tests carried out are Flow cytometry, Lumbar puncture, Liver Function Tests
and Imaging tests.
There is no permanent cure to this condition yet. Meanwhile, based on the type of Leukaemia, it can be
managed with treatments like chemotherapy, radiation, targeted therapy and surgery.
Reliable tests for diagnosing leukaemia are available at MedBioTechLab.