POLYCYSTIC OVARIAN SYNDROME (PCOS)
Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) is a clinical disorder associated with hormonal imbalance and menstrual abnormalities. This hormonal imbalance causes enlarged ovaries with small cysts or fluid-filled sacs on the outer edges, hence the name Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome. However, not all women with this clinical disorder have cysts.
PCOS is one of the most common endocrine disorders affecting women of reproductive age group. It is also the most common cause of infertility and may lead to serious complications.
The underlying cause of PCOS is not completely clear but a genetic basis is being suspected. Several other factors that cause PCOS are a higher level of male sex hormones called Androgens which are usually present in women in small amounts. High androgen levels produced by the ovaries prevent the ovaries from releasing eggs (ovulation) thereby causing irregular menstrual cycles. Small cysts may develop on ovaries due to a lack of ovulation. Many women with PCOS may have insulin resistance and low-grade inflammation.
The predisposing factors of PCOS are family history, high maternal androgen, insulin resistance, and obesity.
The symptoms of PCOS are irregular periods, abnormal hair growth (hirsutism), acne, cysts, obesity, infertility, and acanthosis nigricans (patches of dark skin especially in the folds of the neck, armpits, groin and under the breast).
The complications are type 2 diabetes, infertility, endometrial cancer, high blood pressure, depression, anxiety, sleep apnea, abnormal lipid levels, and cardiovascular disease.
The laboratory diagnosis of polycystic ovarian syndrome includes Hormone Profile Tests (Follicle Stimulating Hormone, Leutinizing Hormone, Testosterone), Thyroid Function Tests, Serum Prolactin, Glucose Tolerance Test, Fasting Insulin Level, Fasting Lipid Profile, 17 Alpha Hydroxyprogesterone and Cortisol.
Further complications are prevented by lifestyle changes, medications and surgery.
Visit MedBioTech for an accurate laboratory diagnosis of PCOS.