Meningitis is an acute severe infection of the central nervous system which causes an inflammation of the fluid and membranes (meninges) that surround the brain and spinal cord. Some cases resolve without treatment while others can be life-threatening.
There are several causes of meningitis. Viral meningitis, which is the most common often clears on its own and is caused by Herpes Simplex Virus, Human Immunodeficient Virus, West Nile Virus, Mumps Virus, Measles Virus and Influenza Virus. Bacterial meningitis, which is life-threatening is caused by Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenza and Listeria monocytogenes. Parasitic meningitis is caused by tapeworm. Fungi meningitis is caused by Cryptococcus, Histoplasma, Blastomyces, Candida and Coccidioides.
The transmission is mainly by close contact with someone who is already infected or through breathing in contaminated dust. The risk factors are skipping vaccinations, age (premature babies), living in a community setting, pregnancy and compromised immune system.
Symptoms of meningitis include high fever, confusion, lack of energy, excessive sleepiness, vomiting, loss of appetite and thirst, severe headache, skin rash, seizures, stiff neck/ body and sensitivity to light. Complications of meningitis are hearing loss, memory difficulty, learning disabilities, brain damage, seizures, kidney failure, shock and death.
Laboratory diagnosis is done by Cerebrospinal Fluid Analysis and Blood Tests. The methods entail Microscopy, Culture, Antibiotic SusceptibilityTest (AST) and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) method.
Meningitis can be prevented through proper hygiene, handwashing rest, regular exercise and vaccinations. Once the symptoms are noticed, the affected person must be taken to the hospital for early diagnosis and treatment.
At MedBioTechLab, we offer quality and reliable Cerebrospinal Fluid analysis and Blood Tests for early diagnosis of Meningitis.