BLADDER OUTLET OBSTRUCTION (BOO)
Bladder Outlet Obstruction is also known as Prostatism or Urinary Retention. It is a condition in which there is a blockage at the base of the bladder.
BOO produces compression or resistance upon the bladder outflow channel at any location from the bladder neck to the urethral meatus. Thereby, reducing or stopping the flow of urine out of the bladder into the urethra. Bladder Outlet Obstruction is common in about 80% of men above the age of 50 years.
The causes of Bladder Outlet Obstruction are an enlarged prostate, bladder stones, bladder cancer, prostate cancer, urethra cancer, cervical cancer, vaginal cancer, tumours in the rectum, narrowing of the urethra, urethral scarring, hernia, certain medications, surgery, pelvic organ prolapse, severe constipation and dysfunctional voiding.
The risk factors of BOO are male gender, older age, and women with cystocele.
Symptoms of Bladder Outlet Obstruction are abdominal pain, frequent urination, continuous bladder fulling, urinary tract infection, dysuria, pain during urination (dysuria), difficulties starting urination (urinary hesitancy), slow, uneven urine flow, straining to urinate, urinary tract infection and nocturia.
The complications of Bladder Outlet Obstruction are urinary upper tract dilatation, kidney problems and bladder problems.
Laboratory diagnosis of BOO involves Urinalysis, Urine Microscopy and Culture. Early diagnosis helps in curing Bladder Outlet Obstruction.
BOO can be treated with a catheter, surgery and medications.
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