This is a condition in which one or both kidneys swells as a result of improper drainage of urine from the urinary tract. It is a secondary condition which results from an underlying disease. Hydronephrosis can be sudden or chronic. It can also be one-sided or bilateral.
Improper drainage of urine which leads to hydronephrosis is usually caused by a blockage or obstruction in the urinary tract. This can be a result of kidney stones, blood clots, tumours, nerve problems or pregnancy. It could also be due to a fallen bladder, urinary retention, urinary tract infection, congenital blockage, enlarged prostate or benign prostatic hyperplasia.
The people who are at risk of hydronephrosis are men who are over the age of 50, sexually active women and pregnant women.
The symptoms of hydronephrosis are frequent urination, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, painful urination, incomplete bladder emptying, fever, weakness and bloody urine.
If hydronephrosis is not treated, it may result in decreased kidney function and kidney failure.
The laboratory diagnosis involves Urine Microscopy and Culture, Full Blood Count, Blood Urea, Kidney Function Test, estimated GFR and Urinalysis.
Treatment of hydronephrosis is by the ureteral stent, nephrostomy tube, antibiotics, surgery, dialysis and kidney transplant.
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